Monday, August 29, 2011

Installation of Basic Graphical Environment (X Window System) in ArchLinux [Tutorial]

Have you installed the base system ArchLinux? Perfect! The next step, before installing any desktop environment (GNOME, KDE, Xfce, Etc), is the basic graphical installation, or the X Window System, Also known as X11 ,Or simply X.

Before starting, make a general upgrade of the system:
sudo pacman -Syu
Ready? Begin!

Step 1: Install Xorg
First install the base packages Xorg (Implementation open source of X Window System):
sudo pacman -S xorg-server xorg-xinit xorg-utils xorg-server-utils
To add support 3D:
sudo pacman -S mesa mesa-demos
Step 2: Install the Video Driver
This step is not complicated, but it is where many users have trouble even cause them to desist from installing and using ArchLinux. Do not be afraid to install the Video driver! We just have to follow a few pointers.

First of all, we know that our brand and model video card, for which we will use:
lspci
It displays a list of devices hardware of our team. Find the line video card (Tip: You can use lspci | grep VGA to filter the output of the command).

If your video card is nVidia
Usually, the driver free Nouveau is sufficient for most users, and is recommended:
sudo pacman -S xf86-video-nouveau
Additionally, to add 3D support (experimental phase):
sudo pacman -S nouveau-dri
If for some reason Nouveau is not to your liking or not functioning properly on your system, the recommendation is to use drivers owners.

To install the proprietary driver for newer video cards (GeForce 6 onwards):
sudo pacman -S nvidia nvidia-utils
If your video card is not so recent (GeForce 5 FX series):
sudo pacman -S nvidia-173xx nvidia-173xx-utils
You must reboot for the changes to take effect. Next, we configure the newly installed driver of nVidia:
sudo nvidia-xconfig
This command will create (or edit if already exists) the configuration file /etc/X11/xorg.conf according to your hardware specific.

If your video card is ATI
For this type of video card, install the driver must xf86-video-ati (radeon), Which work with the Chipset to HD 4xxx (Last R700 Chipset) And for HD 5xxx (Last R800 Chipset).

sudo pacman -S xf86-video-ati
Detail: The controller xf86-video-ati is recognized as "radeon" By Xorg (In /etc/X11/xorg.conf).

If your video card is Intel
For motherboards Marks Intel ,That have integrated video card (GPU), Just install the following driver:
sudo pacman -S xf86-video-intel
Work in GPUs most common, such as Intel GMA 900 (Chipset 910, 915) And Intel GMA 950 (chipset 945).

If you are installing ArchLinux low VirtualBox
First we install the base package:
sudo pacman -S virtualbox-archlinux-additions
And then load the modules kernel of VirtualBox:
sudo modprobe -a vboxguest vboxsf vboxvideo
For these modules are loaded each time the system boots, we add to the array MODULES in the configuration file /etc/rc.conf:
MODULES(... vboxguest vboxsf vboxvideo)
If your video card is different from previous
To see the complete list of video drivers open-sourcePerforms the following query:

pacman -Ss xf86-video
Check carefully the list of previous command output, and identifies the driver appropriate to your video card. For example, to install the driver for Savage:
sudo pacman -S xf86-video-savage
If none are appropriate to your video card driver vesa is the most generic, but not supported 3D or acceleration hardware:
sudo pacman -S xf86-video-vesa
Step 3: Testing Graphical
Before installing GNOME, KDE or desktop environment of your choice, I highly recommend you verify the basic GUI works properly (and avoid a headache later), for which we will install the window manager default X: twm.
sudo pacman -S xorg-twm xorg-xclock xterm
If Xorg installed before creating your username (if you followed the steps from the last tutorial, you need not worry about this detail), there will be an empty file .xinitrc your $HOME, Which need to remove to properly initialize the graphical environment.
rm ~/.xinitrc
Additionally, we need the "message bus” (dbus) Is installed:
sudo pacman -S dbus
Then run the daemon dbus:
sudo rc.d start dbus
Do not forget to add dbus settlement DAEMONS within /etc/rc.conf to automatically start whenever you boot the system:
DAEMONS=(... dbus ...)
Finally, run Xorg!:
startx
Appear a simple windows, clock, and your mouse should work. If so, you did it!, You have installed and configured your environment perfectly Basic Chart, ready to proceed to installation GNOME, KDE ,Etc..

Ah yes, out of twmYou can use the command:

sudo pkill X
or reboot the system:
sudo reboot
Incidentally, the above information is extracted from the wonderful Official ArchLinux Wiki, Which I recommend you see if you have any questions, or to expand your knowledge of this magnificent distro.
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